How To Save A Life: 10 Most Disgusting Medical Procedures That Could Be Life-Saving

Medicine has evolved from the development of lab-grown body parts to fecal transplants, shaping the way patients receive care. Despite their growing advancement, some medical procedures are bizarre and have yet to become accepted. Alltime 10s’s video, “10 Disgusting Medical Treatments That Could Save Your Life,” compiles a list of the most disgusting medical procedures ever performed that may make your stomach turn, but can actually save your life.

Nearly seven out of 10 Americans take at least one prescription drug, and half take two or more, with antibiotics being the most commonly prescribed, according to a study in the journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings. These statistics reflect Americans’ great dependency on prescription drugs to treat health ailments. While these medications can help alleviate pains and aches, and combat illnesses, the U.S. and other countries have also resorted to animals and other weird sources to treat a variety of health conditions.

Drinking pulverized frogs blended with herbs for asthma and fertility issues is a common practice in Peru. Many natives also drink frog smoothies as a remedy for a low sex drive, but this has yet to be scientifically proven. Animal ingestion for asthma is also practiced in India, where asthmatics swallow a 5-centimeter fish in herbal paste. Thousands visit the one family who administers and claims the fish clears the throat.

The usage of human body parts also tops the bizarre medical treatments list that can save your life. Doctors have practiced natural orifice surgery by having their patients’ abdominal organs removed through their mouths or vaginas to avoid incisions. The first operation involved a gall bladder extracted through the mouth.

Another unusual yet fascinating medical procedure is a tooth transplant into a patient’s eye. Removing a tooth from a patient and placing it in the eye can restore sight. A hole that is drilled in the tooth holds a prosthetic lens that can correct corneal scats once implanted in the eye.

While some cultures swear by them, and others look away, these bizarre medical treatments have been able to save lives.

Click on Alltime 10s’s video for more disgusting medical cures, and see if you can stomach getting through the complete list.

Love Syndrome

Aetiology : Unkown

Age of Onset : Teenage. Recent studies
have shown that it may affect people upto 25 years of age.

Risk Factors : The age itself is the major risk factor. Others include
(a) Co-education
(b) Cell Phones
(c) Movies
(d) Internet Of these the part played by the cell phones is note worthy.

Pathology
Multi Organ System Failure

Clinical Features

Symptoms
A) The most common presenting feature is
throbbing pain in the heart often described by the patient as sweet pain.
B) Loss of appetite.
C) Sleeplessness.
D) Day dreaming
E) Disinterest in any type of work. There is a danger of patient being transformed into a
poet.

Signs
A) Very much dilated pupil (In search of his sweet
heart).
B) Blushing of cheeks (mainly seen in girls).
C) On Auscultation:
The First Heart Sound is heard as LOVE instead of LUB.
D) Smiling to self.

Pathogenesis and Clinical Course
The Disease is Gradual in onset. The patient presents with vague symptoms like loss of appetite,
sleeplessness, etc., As time progress mutli organ system involvement occurs with
varied symptoms. The symptoms are aggravated at the sight of patients sweet
heart. The sight of patients love causes the contraction of the radial fibres of
the iris muscle leading to the dilation of the pupil. The eyes remain wide open
and cease to blink. The Zygomaticus major muscle automatically contarcts and the
patient smiles (Smile at Sight Phenomenon). As the patient approaches his sweet
heart, action potentials are generated at an irregular rate in the heart and the
normal rhythm of the heart is lost. Microscopic examination of the cardiac
muscle reveals the presence of abnormal pacemaker tissue at certain areas called
the ROMANTIC SPOTS that are responsible for the lost rhythm of the Heart. The
patient feels agitated, and a throbbing pain develops in the heart. The
characteristc feature of the pain that patient wants to feel it more and more.
In advanced stages, the brain is affected. If not treated properly, the patient
may go bad.

Treatment
Marriage Therapy holds promise of 100% cure rates. If is effective only after 22 years of age. If performed early,
it may lead to adverse reactions.

Preventive Measures
Several attempts have been made to prevent the disease. The WLO (World Love
Organization) expert committee has finally declared that the disease is
inevitable during the age group and its prevention is literally impossible. Any
attempts to interrupt the normal course of the disease may lead to more severe
from of disease. So interventional measures are highly contraindicated for this
disease.

Why do I feel sleepy when I start studying? What can I do?

This question was originally posted on Quora. Answer 1 by: Alaka Halder, Princeton University ’15

A2A. Studying for the SAT wasn’t my favourite task in the world either, so I’ll share some of the things I did:

  • Get away from your computer and other distractions. You’ve already pointed out that having all those soft copies of SAT guides is pretty useless if you’re on edX all the time. So print out those soft copies, or better yet, buy some hard copy SAT guides. I think they smell nice 😛
  • I hated reading the SAT guide. You’re being tested on what you learned in high school anyway, and I didn’t feel that I was benefiting from reading/passive reading. So I took a lot of practice tests instead of “studying”, and checked my answers against the answers manual. If I got something wrong, I tried to figure out why. It’s hard to get distracted when you’re actively engaged in something like test taking.
  • A technique that you might find helpful for building your studying stamina is the very simple Pomodoro method (Lifehacker: The Pomodoro Technique Trains Your Brain Away From Distractions):

    Developed in the 1990s, the Pomodoro technique uses a timer and a simple concept: write down a task, work on that task for 25 minutes without interruption, and then take a break for five minutes. It takes the pressure off the task, and discourages multitasking. The goal is to pace yourself through the task, while still maintaining progress. This method enables you to concentrate without distractions, and encourages deep thinking,

    Lifehacker

    Anyone can concentrate for 25 minutes. After you’ve worked for four 25 minute chunks, give yourself a longer break (e.g. 15 minutes). I know people find this helpful if they’re procrastinating a lot, or if they find themselves retaining too little of what they’re studying. The remain answers are here.

150+ Free Pages of Mnemonics in All Medical Branches!

While browsing on the web searching for mnemonics, we found a nice PDF with 100+ pages including mnemonics in “Anatomy – Biochemistry – Cardiology – Dermatology – Embryology – Emergency Medicine – ENT – Epidemiology – GIT – Genetics – Histology – Immunology – Family Medicine – Internal Medicine – Physical Exam – Microbiology – Neurology – Gynecology – Ophthalmology – Orthopedics – Pulmonology – Pediatrics – Pharmacology – Physiology – Podiatry – Psychatry – Radiology – Oncology – Rheumatology – Surgery and Nephrology”

Samples:100 Free Pages of Mnemonics in All Medical Branches! 100 Free Pages of Mnemonics in All Medical Branches! 100 Free Pages of Mnemonics in All Medical Branches! 100 Free Pages of Mnemonics in All Medical Branches!

The other list you can find it herehere and here.

What’s it like to perform surgery for the very first time?

Sure you’ll know what you’re doing and had plenty of practice on things that aren’t people. Sure you’ve watched others doing it. But what’s it like the very first time you cut somebody open to make them healthy? Is there extra fear of messing it up? Were you fairly confident?

(This question was originally posted on Quora, and below is a selection of the best relevant answers.)

Answers:

Robert Gluck

You’re one year old and taking your first steps. Your mom holds your hand as you waddle along with your little padded tush and she let’s go. You’re walking! Yeah! It’s all heavily scripted but what do you know? Mom makes sure that you’re well protected. No stairs. No sharp corners. You fall, you get up.

Training as a surgeon, the first few times you think you’re flying on your own…hopefully you’re not. But, what about that very first time when you’re really flying solo? On the other side of the blade, the scalpel, the lancet, the knife…on the receiving end of your services, is someone you were talking to a bit earlier. Or maybe it was their family. Or maybe not. Maybe it’s an emergency and you’ve never even met! One way or another, on the other side of the knife is someone who feels, who dreams, who lives a life. Someone with a past, a present, and a future that you will help shape…or un-shape. Someone who trusts. You.

They trust you. To get it right. To do your best. And maybe your mom’s not around. Or…you are the mom. And there’s no one else to ask. The buck stops here? So, through your exhilaration, your apprehension, your fear, you need to focus…your life depends on it. Well, as it so happens, not your life. Their life! Their pleasure, their pain, their existence. You deal. You are the house. Focus. Plan. Stay a step or two ahead. Biological systems are complex. Shit happens. Shit like unexpected bleeding. Like weird anatomy. Like infection. And later…Scarring. Recurrence. Metasteses. Wet and dirty bandages. Bandages that fall off. Are too tight. Patients who don’t listen. Patients who are scared and in pain. Your first surgery doesn’t begin and end in the OR. But for now…stay focused…cut sharp and think sharp!

Laszlo B. Tamas, Neurosurgeon with ties to the Bay area and Silicon Valley.

Memory is a filter, and I think mine is more of a filter than most. Frankly, I don’t remember my first surgery as an event. I remember trepidation, clumsiness, slowness, having to think about every step, and sometimes impatience and even hostility from the supervising surgeon.

And since then, a slow, steady growth in ability, understanding, of conscious movement becoming subconscious, of befriending margins without passing them to normal brain, of having an intuitive “feel” for the brain, gray and white matter (subtle), arteries, veins, arterialized veins, and now no longer having any anxiety about cases except for the most unusual and risky. And, looking back at the “surgeon” of 20 years ago, recognizing what a dolt I was! (and maybe not being so hard on the other young dolts I come across). Read all the answers here.

Can a schizophrenic become a doctor?

17 this year, and I have interest in pursuing medicine after I clear my national exams. Say if I can manage my symptoms well with an exception of a few relapses and do well in my national exams in the next three years, would this illness in any way, hinder me from getting into a medical school?

This question was originally posted on Quora, which was answered by Susan Winslow, 25 years Certified Psychiatric Nurse 

Yes, a person with schizophrenia can become a doctor and people have. However it is challenging and I will tell you why. Simply put, inordinate amounts of stress bring on relapses. With each relapse a person with schizophrenia has they increase their liklihood of having another relapse ( it is the same with cancer) . With each relaspse a person suffers the more damage is done to the brain in the areas of higher executive functioning ( in the prefontal cortex). This is the area of the brain required to study, train and actually practice as a doctor.

As a nurse who has spent the majority of my career in a teaching medical center and have worked side be side medical students, residents, and attending physicians this is one of most stressful professions I can think of entering. It is not only stressful on your mind it is also stressful on your body , on your family life and on you emotionally. I could go on and on but since I don’t have the space to do that I would suggest through your school , you ask to shadow a doctor at a local hospital or in your local emergency room, just to see what a “ day in the life “ is like.

That will give you an idea of how busy they can be, how often they need to switch gears, deal with emergencies, give extremely sad news to family members, listen to people who don’t agree with what you have told them, get yelled at, keep up with documentation, put off going to the restroom, are expected to know everything, perform miracles and have all the time in the world for each patient, maybe get 15 minutes for lunch, have memories like steel traps, and treat every one with respect, concern and dignity and chances are you are doing this on very little sleep.

I am not trying to discourage you . This is real life as a doctor. Being a resident is even harder because you are trying to proove yourself in order to become a doctor. With the illness of schizophrenia I would think long and hard and do lots of first hand work to see if you could actually see yourself doing the job and managing the illness. Your illness requires little to no stress, at least 7–8 hrs of sleep per night, three well balanced meals per day, adequate amounts of exercise to move your bigger muscle groups, time spent at rest, a very good support network, and fun activities.

I myself can think of other careers that involve medicine that wouldn’t jeopardize your health for instance nursing, nurse practitioner, many areas of research, medical ethics, medical law, medical IT ( the fatest growing career right now) etc.

Give it some thought, so many careers but your health is your top priority ! My Best.

What do you think? Let us know in the comment bellow.

Interesting facts about trigeminal nerve

Did you just feel that last warm gasp of summer air touch your face? Fair enough, whilst writing this it is still summer, but there is more to it than just motion of the air in the atmosphere. And this is where the fifth cranial nerve, or trigeminal nerve, comes in. It is a nerve responsible for such motor functions as chewing and biting and – you guessed it – the sensation in the face.

When talking about the trigeminal nerve, it is most important to remember both functional classification and anatomical division. For the sake of simplicity let’s start with the anatomy part. As the name “trigeminus” already suggests, the nerve itself is divided into three great branches – ophthalmic (or V1), maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3), which leave the skull via different foramina – the superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum and foramen ovale, respectively. Those branches converge on the trigeminal ganglion, from which a large sensory root and a smaller motor root travels to the brainstem, which it enters at the level of pons. This also quite precisely describes the proportion of function in the nerve, of which the most part is sensory that involves all three branches. When talking about interesting and unique things about the nerve, then the borders of the dermatomes of the branches are relatively sharp and have almost no overlap, comparing to other dermatomes of the body. This means that, when under local anesthesia or if a branch is infected, a very well-defined area will be affected. To explore the nerve in greater detail, we truly recommend you to visit anatomynext.com. The amazing detail really makes it stand out in the field and make anatomy learning and teaching a different experience.

When talking about the function, it is usually easier to learn the nerve step-by-step, starting from the very uppermost branch – the ophthalmic or V1. This branch transmits sensory information from the forehead, scalp, upper eyelids, parts of the eye such as conjunctiva and cornea, most of the nose (the exception are the nose wings, which are innerved by the maxillary branch), nose mucosa with the help of the maxillary branch and the frontal sinuses. Interestingly enough, the nerve innervates dura mater and meningeal vessels as well, although this is done in a teamwork of all three branches.

The maxillary nerve furthermore covers lower eyelids, nares and the upper lip, the cheek, upper teeth and gums, roof of the pharynx along with the palate and the sinuses that the ophthalmic branch did not cover – the maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid ones.

The third branch, or the mandibular nerve transmits senses from the lower lip along with lower teeth and gums, the chin and the jaw and parts of the external ear. It is worth noting though that the angle of the jaw is not innerved by this branch, but by the C2-C3.

When summarizing the sensory part of trigeminal nerve, it is very useful to use sensory diagrams, which you can check out when learning anatomy with the help of Anatomy Next as well. As I already mentioned earlier, the borders are quite sharp and specific for each branch and this helps those of us who have a good visual memory, and all of the branches take part in meningeal innervation and divide the job of innervation of the sinuses between the ophthalmic nerve (for the frontal sinus) and the maxillary nerve (the ethmoid, maxillary and sphenoid).

The smaller, but not lesser part of the nerve has a motor function which involves four muscles of mastication (masseter, temporal and lateral and medial pterygoids) as well as four other muscles – tensor veli palatini, tensor timpani, mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric. They are all controlled by the motor part of the mandibular branch and involved into the process of eating – biting, chewing and swallowing. The exception is the tensor tympani, which has a sound dampening function, including the sound of chewing.

As always, your feedback is welcome. What are your thoughts? Please share a comment below or contact us via email!

Find out what are the deadliest toxins on Earth

Find out what are the deadliest toxins on Earth

Arsen, in the amount of а rainfall can kill a man for two hours, but it also acts as a joke in relation to what follows. When we think of the deadliest toxins, most of us will remember the arsen.

George thirds of England, Napoleon Bonaparte and Chinese king Gaungxu, are considered to share the same thing – all three died of arsenic poisoning. Only 200 milligrams of arsen, corresponding to approximately one drop of rain, is sufficient to kill anyone within two hours.

The first sign of poisoning is a metallic taste in the mouth, followed by vomiting, seizures and death. It sounds weird, but even arsen seems to be practically harmless when compared to some other substances. Tetrodotoxin is a poison that is distinguished by the famous spherical fish and by the octopus Hapalochlaena. This poison leaves her victim paralyzed while the body passes through agony.

The tongue and the mouth begin to seal, in the mouth comes to a true eruption of the saliva and the body begins to sweep terribly.
As long as the victim is fully aware of what is happening, he can not move.

Death will occur after long tortures lasting approximately six hours, and аntidotes does not exist. Some experts believe that this venom was used by voodoo fighters, but at too small doses, in order to cause trance to the individual.  A scientific confirmation of this theory still does not exist.

The deadliest toxins are often incredibly close to our homes. One of them is glucose digoxin, which can be found in the most common flowers in our yards, such as oleander, lily, pestle and more. Only two kilograms of this poison, skilfully arranged and dosed, is enough to wipe out humanity from the Earth as a whole.

Image credit: Photographer:vladacanon

49 Fascinating YouTube Videos to Learn About the Human Body

49 Fascinating YouTube Videos to Learn About the Human Body

As any doctor, nurse practitioner or other health care professional knows, the body is an interesting system. In many ways, it’s like a machine, with many complex parts. There is a lot to learn about the body and how it works, as well as how its different systems interact to create a larger system. Here are 49 interesting YouTube videos that can help you learn about the human body:

Brain

Your brain directs the rest of the body’s functions. It is also one of the most mysterious parts of the body, with science only just beginning to unlock some of its secrets.

  1. How the Body Works: The Regions of the Brain: An interesting look at the different regions of the brain, and what they are responsible for.
  2. Brain Anatomy Function: How brain works?: An interesting look at the parts of the brain, how they work, and what different areas do.
  3. The Miracle in the Human Brain: The way neurons in the brain connect to make everything work.
  4. Basic Facts about Traumatic Brain Injury: Learn about what happens with a traumatic brain injury.
  5. How the Brain Works Part 1 (UCLA): This video offers an introduction to how the brain works to help us acquire skills. Also, watch parts two, three and four.
  6. Pattern Seeking in Reading: An interesting video on strategies to help your brain learn reading through pattern seeking.
  7. How the Body Works: Center of Emotion and Memory: Learn about emotional response and memory formation in the brain.

49 Fascinating YouTube Videos to Learn About the Human Body

Skeleton

Learn how the skeletal system works, supporting your body and keeping everything together.

  1. How the Body Works: The Infant’s Skeleton: An interesting look at how the infant’s skeleton develops.
  2. The Structure of Bone: Looks at different parts of the bone.
  3. Bone anatomy: Another look at the interior of bone, and what each part of the bone does.
  4. Anatomy & Physiology: Bone Growth: Watch how the process of bone growth works, and how our bones develop.
  5. The Human Body: Skeletal System: A basic look at the skeletal system, and its importance to the body.
  6. Learn Human Body – Skeleton System: This is a child-friendly look at the skeleton system.
  7. How the Body Works: Skeletal Muscles: Learn about how muscles and the skeletal system work together. The whole list, find it here.

Abortion with a help of a pill – today it’s a reality

Abortion with a help of a pill - today it's a reality

In a large number of countries in the world, abortion as a method of terminating a pregnancy, is unfortunately still a taboo subject. Despite the social and medical advancement in the world, abortion is still used as birth control and contraception. It is accompanied by many physical, emotional and psychological consequences for a woman in the reproductive period and therefore every woman should have the right to free choice, the right to a safe and legal abortion and full information about the procedure.

On average, about 41% (85 million) of the 208 million pregnancies annually in the world are unplanned, and half of them end up with abortion [1]. Modern methods of termination of pregnancy include traditional, surgical (instrumental) abortion and drug-induced (pharmacological) abortion.

The WHO recommended method for surgical interruption of pregnancy is a so-called vacuum aspiration (manual or electrical) at gestational age of 12-14 weeks. Dilatation and evacuation (D & E) or curettage is another method of surgical interruption of pregnancy that is recommended to be replaced by vacuum aspiration.

Medicaid abortion has been used in several European countries for several years and is a non-invasive method of terminating a pregnancy by using drugs according to a particular protocol depending on the gestational age of the pregnancy. In countries where both methods of termination of pregnancy are available, the woman decides on the type of abortion she chooses. In the Balkan countries, medical abortion is not yet an officially available method for terminating a pregnancy, and its available only surgical abortion that is actually an invasive method.

The most commonly used drugs for performing drug abortion are Mifepriston (commonly known as RU-486) and Misoprostol (Cytotec) and are administered in the first trimester of pregnancy (until the 9th or 12th week). In order to increase efficacy, it is recommended that a combination of both drugs be administered, or rather Mifepriston (orally) initiates the abortion first, and after two days Misoprostol is administered which causes contractions and helps the products to be thrown out of the conception by the uterus.

In many studies, it has been proven that medical abortion is a safe and effective method of terminating a pregnancy, with a reported success rate or efficiency of 95% [2]. Its advantages compared to the surgical are low cost and the possibility of performing at home if there is provided access to the appropriate healthcare facility in case of need.

Taking into account the efficacy and safety of medical and surgical abortion, as well as the complications they carry with them, the introduction of drug abortion in practice is the introduction of an appropriate alternative method for termination of unwanted pregnancy, and at the same time allows for greater choice in the adoption of one of the the hardest decisions in a woman’s life.

  1. Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems. 2nd edition. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2012. ; b) Lohr Patricia A, Fjerstad Mary, DeSilva Upeka, Lyus Richard. Abortion BMJ 2014; 348 : f7553
  2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Practice bulletin no. 143: medical management of first trimester abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Mar;123(3):676–92.

Image source: Photographer:BDS

What is Hemodialysis (Extracorporeal dialysis)?

Hemodialysis (haemodialysis), also called kidney dialysis or just dialysis, is a treatment for acute kidney failure. Patients need dialysis if their kidneys are not working properly, i.e. they are no longer removing enough waste (such as creatinine and urea) and fluid from the blood. This usually happens when around 85-90 percent of kidney function is lost.

In order to perform the hemodialytic treatment, the blood of the patient is put in an artificial kidney which, through the pumping machine, circulates the blood through a filter that cleans it, and returns it back to the patient. Therefore, the blood needs to be extracted from the patient.

In urgent cases this is implemented by putting a catheter inside a big blood vessel (central venous catheter). In case the treatment could be scheduled in advance, the substitutional treatment is performed by arteriovenous fistula, which is a junction created surgically (using local anesthetic) between a vein and an artery, most frequently at the level of the forearm.

At the beginning of the dialytic session, the patient is connected to the hemodialytic machine by central venous catheter or by the insertion of two needles at the level of the fistula.

Every treatment lasts approximately 4 hours, and is done 3 times per week. The duration of every treatment and the weekly frequency could vary, depending on physician’s discretion based on clinical necessity of the patient.

The main point of the treatment is “the dialytic filter”, an element with bio-compatible dual compartment. Blood extracted from the patient flows in the first compartment. In the second compartment flows aqueous solution, enriched with solutions essential for the blood. This solution is also low in (or deprived of) waste that needs to be extracted and it’s called “dialytic solution”. To allow an adequate depuration, the blood flow through the filter is maintained with the help of a pump, with a flow rate of around 250-300 ml/min.

The amount of fluid, that is extracted during a single treatment, depends on the quantity of liquid that the patient takes in the interval between two consecutive sessions. Fluid intake is measured by weighing the patient at the end of the dialytic treatment and at the beginning of the following one. The “ideal weight” of the patient, called “dry weight”, is defined according to the clinical and instrumental data of the nephrologist who practices the dialytic treatment.

Book Pack you’ll need while studying for MBBS

Greetings, med students!

We have been getting a lot of questions on our page, regarding medical literature. Where do I find the books, which ones you recommend, do you have anatomy books are only some of them, to name a few.

So, look no further, as we have something for you ! With help of one of our fans A. Aqeel, we have gathered a list of medical books, which should help you on this quest of becoming a medical professional.

We know this road is very rocky one, with a lot of twist and turns, and we want to help!

Here is the list of the complete package, with all the pdf books you will need (download links included):

Anatomy:
1–> KLM for Gross Anatomy
2–> Snell’s Anatomy
3–> BD Churassia
4–> RJ Last
5–> Grey’s Anatomy
6–> Langman Embryology
7–> KLM for Embryology
8–> BD For General Anatomy
9–> Dissector
10–> Di Fore Histology
11–> Junqueira’s Histology
12–> Netter Atlas of human Aantomy

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LYV9KQ3lxY29FY28

Physiology:
1–> Guyton
2–> Ganong
3–> Sheerwood
4–> Sembulingam

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LdXlCSjdZM214dEE

Biochemistry:
1–> Harper
2–> Lippincott
3–> Chatterjea
4–> Satyanarayan
5–> Stryer
6–> MRS Biochemistry

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B3WdpdsqpX0Ld0o3WnhCR2VEczg

Pathology:
1–> Big Robins
2–> Medium Robins
3–> Pathoma
4–> Goljan
5–> Harsh Mohan Pathology
6–> Atlas of Histopathology
7–> Levinson
8–> MRS microbiology
9–> Microbiology by Jacquelyn G. Black
10–> Color Atlas of Microbiology
11–> Kaplan Pathology

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LYkRYdjFrTm5MR0U

Pharmacology:
1–> Big Katzung
2–> Mini Katzung
3–> Kaplan Review
4–> Lippincott
5–> Pocket Katzung
6–> Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology
7–> Atlas of Pharmacology

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LMkE1UUVRZGwtTlU

Forensic Medicine:
1–> Simpson’s Forensics
2–> Krishan’s Forensics
3–> Atlas of Autopsy
4–> Atlas of Forensic Medicine

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LQXVwOGoyWnFSV2s

Ophthalmology:
1–> Jogi
2–> Jatoi
3–> Parson’s Textbook of Eye
4–> Kanski
5–> AK Khurana
6–> Atlas of ophthalmology

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LOHc5WVZMdkJjX2M

Otorhinolaryngology:
1–> Dhingra
2–> Logans Turner
3–> Color Atlas of Otorhinolaryngology
4–> Maqbool’s Text Book of ENT
5–> Clinical Methods in ENT by PT Wakode
6–> ENT at a Glance

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LaDY2a0lFNDlfTGc

Community Medicine:
1–> Monica’s Text Book Community Medicine
2–> Mahajan And Gupta Text Book of Community Medicine
3–> Bancroft’s Text Book of Community Medicine

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0Lc1RCMml2NjhFNjA

Medicine:
1–> Churchill’s Pocketbook of DD
2–> MTB Step 2 Ck
3–> Davidson Essentials
4–> Davidson Principals and practice
5–> Harrison’s Internal Medicine
6–> Internal Medicine USMLE Nuggets
7–> Internal Medicine on call bt LANGE
8–> Oxfords Specialties

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LeEFJNG5TMlc4eWc

Surgery:
1–> Bailey_love short practice of Surgery
2–> Churchill’s pocketbook of Surgery
3–> Deja Review of surgery
4–> Farquharson’s Textbook of Operative General Surgery
5–> Hamilton Bailey’s Physical Signs
6–> Oxford Handbook of Clinical Surgery
7–> Schwartz’s Principles of Surgery
8–> Macleod’s Clinical Examination
9–> Macleod’s Clinical Diagnosis

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LRFpFSG5hZ1pVWkE

Obstetrics & Gynecology:
1–> Case Discussions in Obstetrics and Gynecology
2–> Deja Review of Obstetrics Gynecology
3–> Obstetrics by Ten Teachers
4–> Gynaecology illustrated
5–> Gynaecology by Ten Teachers

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LMU1LRjFDa1FrbjA

Pediatrics:
1–> Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics
2–> Nelson Complete
3–> Pediatrics Review

Folder link–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LUkdTQkVuNV92Yzg

And some other books you might find useful:

1st Professional Books–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0Lay1HT1d5Yks5V0U

2nd Professional Books–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LemtmYXpYMGlydVk

3rd Professional Books–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LWmlCSHBpUFpPZU0

4th Professional Books–> https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B3WdpdsqpX0LbnJvUzk3NHRhWWc

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Informed Consent and autonomy

Informed consent requires that a patient agrees to a certain procedure while Autonomy provides that the patient has the sole responsibility to decide. These are very ideal and in theory their practicability is simple. But is it?

At the wake of limited resources, the patient may not completely have the final say as to what happens to them. They may not have as many options to choose from, as the resources may not be as plenty. Further in developing countries, consent and autonomy is further complicated by the paternalistic relations that exists between the provider and the patients. The patients are less informed on their care and their conditions and interpret illness in a society and cultural context thus resulting into lesser accurate information on their well-being.

Healthcare providers in developing countries therefore have to create a balance between respect for autonomy and informed consent with the need to adequately educate the patient on the preferred care they choose. With the limited resources, the doctor often will choose the diagnostic procedure and have a big say on the prognosis treatment and rehabilitation of the patient. Consent to this end is thus used with overall call on doctors since Hippocratic times to do no harm.

Non-Maleficence

The principle of “doing no harm” is the underlying ethical principle in the limited resources system and heavy patient load clinical atmospheres. The doctors who are often the more informed party have to constantly recall the Hippocratic oath section stating “…I will use treatment to help the sick according to my ability and judgment, but never with a view to injury and wrong-doing”

The healthcare provider has to often balance between the available resources, the huge patient numbers with different needs and in this situations he/she has to do good at all times. Students in medicine in the whole of the healthcare profession seeking an elective in low resources settings must in similar way be prepared to do no harm. They must practice within their scope, they must appreciate their skills deficit and must at all times only perform a procedure that they are certain of their competence to and safeguard the safety of patient as a principle superior to hands on experience and clinical exposure.

Beneficence

This principle is rather a common phenomenon and often seen as a direct inferred principle to any practice of medicine. The premise from which it progresses is that all actions of the provider must be such that it benefits the patient.

While beneficence to the patient is relative and its interpretation different to various providers, in developing countries, this is seen as extending beyond the clinical care of the patient.  It involves a proper provision of information on the need to seek the professional health services as well as advice on the measures that are essential for prevention of further harm arising from the condition. Healthcare providers take an active role in preventive care and health promotion.

Students intending to undertake an elective in a developing must therefore be prepared to undertake deliberate efforts both in learning and for benefit of patients to educate the patients on care. Further they should be ready to participate in CMEs and other sessions so arranged within the hospital of placement.

While discussions revolving around ethics elucidate heated debates, understanding the centrality of the patients in them is a sure way to ensure the open view of ethics. Learning ethics and their application best happens in atmospheres where the ethical dilemmas often arise and where their application is not a direct sweep of the written standard.

A placement abroad and especially in a developing country is a unique exposure to learn through practice of the ethics in healthcare practice.  These are opportunities that healthcare students should keenly consider.

 

About the Author

Richard Kariuki, BSC Hons Health Services Management and the Lead Placement Advisor at Elective Africa, a healthcare placements organizer to Africa.