The amazing anatomy of Dental Plexus

As you probably are already aware of, the trigeminal nerve is quite a vast one. It itself has three major branches which innervate a vast region of the head, including such internal parts as the sinuses and dura mater, and, of course, big part of the upper digestion earns credit to the trigeminal nerve – including the muscles involved in chewing and swallowing as well as the sense of your gums and teeth.

All of this is done via smaller branches which furthermore innervate their target structures. The dental plexus is one of those branches, which actually consist of two quite different parts (see the image below, precisely demonstrated by Anatomy Next).

Although they do innervate teeth, the superior branch comes from the maxillary nerve and the inferior branch originates from the mandibular nerve. The superior dental plexus arises from the infraorbital nerve in the infraorbital canal. This branch of nerves furthermore innervates superior molar, premolar, canine and incisor teeth together with gingiva surrounding them before the infraorbital nerve exits the canal via the infraorbital foramen and innervates the skin of the upper lip, cheek, nasal ala, lower eyelid and conjunctiva.

It is always worth remembering the close location of the maxillary sinus. Not only the nerves can be a common thing between the teeth and the maxillary sinus, but part of the dental infections can spread in the sinus as well.

The inferior dental plexus, however, arises from the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve as it travels through the mandibular canal on its way to become the mental nerve before giving a branch to the incisive teeth. It is worth noting though, that the gingiva is innerved via the inferior dental plexus just as it is with the upper dental plexus. The incisive branch, as the name suggests, innervates the incisors, and the inferior dental branches innervate the premolars and molars together with the canines.

Although the anatomy of teeth innervation might seem challenging to learn and remember, for me it is a piece of art. Such complex structures are amazing to explore and we really do hope that the illustrations and renders will make it easier for students out there as well. If you want to see the nerve in greater 3D detail, visit!


Interesting facts about trigeminal nerve

Did you just feel that last warm gasp of summer air touch your face? Fair enough, whilst writing this it is still summer, but there is more to it than just motion of the air in the atmosphere. And this is where the fifth cranial nerve, or trigeminal nerve, comes in. It is a nerve responsible for such motor functions as chewing and biting and – you guessed it – the sensation in the face.

When talking about the trigeminal nerve, it is most important to remember both functional classification and anatomical division. For the sake of simplicity let’s start with the anatomy part. As the name “trigeminus” already suggests, the nerve itself is divided into three great branches – ophthalmic (or V1), maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3), which leave the skull via different foramina – the superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum and foramen ovale, respectively. Those branches converge on the trigeminal ganglion, from which a large sensory root and a smaller motor root travels to the brainstem, which it enters at the level of pons. This also quite precisely describes the proportion of function in the nerve, of which the most part is sensory that involves all three branches. When talking about interesting and unique things about the nerve, then the borders of the dermatomes of the branches are relatively sharp and have almost no overlap, comparing to other dermatomes of the body. This means that, when under local anesthesia or if a branch is infected, a very well-defined area will be affected. To explore the nerve in greater detail, we truly recommend you to visit The amazing detail really makes it stand out in the field and make anatomy learning and teaching a different experience.

When talking about the function, it is usually easier to learn the nerve step-by-step, starting from the very uppermost branch – the ophthalmic or V1. This branch transmits sensory information from the forehead, scalp, upper eyelids, parts of the eye such as conjunctiva and cornea, most of the nose (the exception are the nose wings, which are innerved by the maxillary branch), nose mucosa with the help of the maxillary branch and the frontal sinuses. Interestingly enough, the nerve innervates dura mater and meningeal vessels as well, although this is done in a teamwork of all three branches.

The maxillary nerve furthermore covers lower eyelids, nares and the upper lip, the cheek, upper teeth and gums, roof of the pharynx along with the palate and the sinuses that the ophthalmic branch did not cover – the maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid ones.

The third branch, or the mandibular nerve transmits senses from the lower lip along with lower teeth and gums, the chin and the jaw and parts of the external ear. It is worth noting though that the angle of the jaw is not innerved by this branch, but by the C2-C3.

When summarizing the sensory part of trigeminal nerve, it is very useful to use sensory diagrams, which you can check out when learning anatomy with the help of Anatomy Next as well. As I already mentioned earlier, the borders are quite sharp and specific for each branch and this helps those of us who have a good visual memory, and all of the branches take part in meningeal innervation and divide the job of innervation of the sinuses between the ophthalmic nerve (for the frontal sinus) and the maxillary nerve (the ethmoid, maxillary and sphenoid).

The smaller, but not lesser part of the nerve has a motor function which involves four muscles of mastication (masseter, temporal and lateral and medial pterygoids) as well as four other muscles – tensor veli palatini, tensor timpani, mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric. They are all controlled by the motor part of the mandibular branch and involved into the process of eating – biting, chewing and swallowing. The exception is the tensor tympani, which has a sound dampening function, including the sound of chewing.

As always, your feedback is welcome. What are your thoughts? Please share a comment below or contact us via email!

Book Pack you’ll need while studying for MBBS

Greetings, med students!

We have been getting a lot of questions on our page, regarding medical literature. Where do I find the books, which ones you recommend, do you have anatomy books are only some of them, to name a few.

So, look no further, as we have something for you ! With help of one of our fans A. Aqeel, we have gathered a list of medical books, which should help you on this quest of becoming a medical professional.

We know this road is very rocky one, with a lot of twist and turns, and we want to help!

Here is the list of the complete package, with all the pdf books you will need (download links included):

1–> KLM for Gross Anatomy
2–> Snell’s Anatomy
3–> BD Churassia
4–> RJ Last
5–> Grey’s Anatomy
6–> Langman Embryology
7–> KLM for Embryology
8–> BD For General Anatomy
9–> Dissector
10–> Di Fore Histology
11–> Junqueira’s Histology
12–> Netter Atlas of human Aantomy

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1–> Guyton
2–> Ganong
3–> Sheerwood
4–> Sembulingam

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1–> Harper
2–> Lippincott
3–> Chatterjea
4–> Satyanarayan
5–> Stryer
6–> MRS Biochemistry

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1–> Big Robins
2–> Medium Robins
3–> Pathoma
4–> Goljan
5–> Harsh Mohan Pathology
6–> Atlas of Histopathology
7–> Levinson
8–> MRS microbiology
9–> Microbiology by Jacquelyn G. Black
10–> Color Atlas of Microbiology
11–> Kaplan Pathology

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1–> Big Katzung
2–> Mini Katzung
3–> Kaplan Review
4–> Lippincott
5–> Pocket Katzung
6–> Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology
7–> Atlas of Pharmacology

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Forensic Medicine:
1–> Simpson’s Forensics
2–> Krishan’s Forensics
3–> Atlas of Autopsy
4–> Atlas of Forensic Medicine

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1–> Jogi
2–> Jatoi
3–> Parson’s Textbook of Eye
4–> Kanski
5–> AK Khurana
6–> Atlas of ophthalmology

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1–> Dhingra
2–> Logans Turner
3–> Color Atlas of Otorhinolaryngology
4–> Maqbool’s Text Book of ENT
5–> Clinical Methods in ENT by PT Wakode
6–> ENT at a Glance

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Community Medicine:
1–> Monica’s Text Book Community Medicine
2–> Mahajan And Gupta Text Book of Community Medicine
3–> Bancroft’s Text Book of Community Medicine

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1–> Churchill’s Pocketbook of DD
2–> MTB Step 2 Ck
3–> Davidson Essentials
4–> Davidson Principals and practice
5–> Harrison’s Internal Medicine
6–> Internal Medicine USMLE Nuggets
7–> Internal Medicine on call bt LANGE
8–> Oxfords Specialties

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1–> Bailey_love short practice of Surgery
2–> Churchill’s pocketbook of Surgery
3–> Deja Review of surgery
4–> Farquharson’s Textbook of Operative General Surgery
5–> Hamilton Bailey’s Physical Signs
6–> Oxford Handbook of Clinical Surgery
7–> Schwartz’s Principles of Surgery
8–> Macleod’s Clinical Examination
9–> Macleod’s Clinical Diagnosis

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Obstetrics & Gynecology:
1–> Case Discussions in Obstetrics and Gynecology
2–> Deja Review of Obstetrics Gynecology
3–> Obstetrics by Ten Teachers
4–> Gynaecology illustrated
5–> Gynaecology by Ten Teachers

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1–> Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics
2–> Nelson Complete
3–> Pediatrics Review

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And some other books you might find useful:

1st Professional Books–>

2nd Professional Books–>

3rd Professional Books–>

4th Professional Books–>

Photo credits: Designed by Freepik

Breakthrough technology joins forces with Medicine- the future of Human Anatomy

How can new technologies help educate the medical professionals?

We live in a time when everything changes not even by year, not by month and not really a day – it comes down to a smaller measure of time when talking about the progress of new technology. As Moore’s law has predicted for decades, the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles every two years as the electronical aids improve. This, of course, directly translates to the capabilities of such devices. So, where have we gone now, in 2017?

Digital anatomy and pathology books are a thing that we are already used to by now. The newest technology does not even reside in various 3D models that became available a few years ago. When exploring the newest capabilities, we came across an amazing rising star among the many digital anatomy learning tools – Anatomy Next. Based in Seattle, they have developed an amazing collection of high-resolution 3D models of cranial nerves, incredibly simple-to-learn yet detailed schemes along with renders that might want to make you question your ability to distinguish them from the real thing. The biggest improvement, though, is the introduction of augmented reality in the world of medical education tools. This is achieved by exploiting the impressive capabilities of Microsoft Hololens – a tool that makes the augmented reality really come into life.



It is long known that visualizing things makes us remember them better, and this advancement does exactly that – it helps anything that can be rendered come in your life; literally. The holographic glasses allow the user to select any of the given anatomy models and project them in front of their eyes. The model then can be adjusted by hand signals, allowing the user to move, rotate, lean it any way the user wishes, and Anatomy Next model is an even more detailed one. Let’s give an example here – you have a highly-detailed render of the skull in front of you. The application allows you to delete or fade out parts of it, take a look at them from any angle you wish, see the most detailed parts in close-up and use the application’s ability to label the bones and parts of them. Now this is learning, not some old, dusty books!

Have you tried this or would like to do so? Give us a shout-out below and share your thoughts!

Think with your skull!

For most people, skulls symbolise pirate chests or some ancient times. Some people only associate skull with death without which we wouldn’t be able to examine beauty and complexity of it. But for us, medical professionals, it associates with medicine, with something exquisite and detailed; as I personally was learning about the bones of the skull in my first year anatomy class, I became completely fascinated of how precise and well – made it is.

Well, what exactly is it made of? It is comprised of 22 bones which are tightly joined together by fibrous joints called sutures. These sutures allow the cranium to act as a whole and serve its primary purpose of protecting the inner organs, namely the brain. For the means of simplicity and logic the anatomy of it can be divided in the roof or the calvarium, and the base. The calvarium is made of the frontal, occipital bones and two parietal bones, and the base of the cranium which support the brain and provide articulation points for the atlas vertebra and mandible is made of the sphenoid, frontal, ethmoid, occipital, parietal and temporal bones.

This is overview of the cranial anatomy. But what about our face? What makes our facial expressions so characteristic and gives us our individual look? 14 bones are the supporters of the facial muscles and organs and the only movable cranial bone is one of the facial ones – the mandible. The other 13 are two maxillae, vomer, two palatine, two nasal, two zygomatic, two nasal conhae and two lacrimal.

Except for the mandibular bone, the bones in the cranium are joined together by a joint that cannot be found anywhere else in the human body – sutures. In the newborn they haven’t all fused together quite yet and form the frontal and occipital fontanelles, but by the approximate time one has reached 20 years of age, they are fused together and are immovable. The most notable sutures in the adult cranium are coronal, sagittal and lambdoid. It is the crossing of those sutures that form aforementioned fontanelles in a newborn.

Knowing the anatomy of cranium is amazing; the complexity of it is just amazing. But in medical school it is usually one of the toughest bone complexes to learn. How can you help yourself improve the experience? The best tool we have found just might be Anatomy Next – not only they have an amazingly detailed renders of 3D anatomy, these models are also available in augmented reality, including Microsoft Hololens. Have you tried it? Share your thoughts below!